# Put option price and volatility

Option values vary with the value of the underlying instrument over time. The price of the call contract must reflect the "likelihood" or chance of the call finishing in-the-money. The call contract price generally will be higher when the contract has more time to expire except in cases when a significant dividend is present and when the underlying financial instrument shows more volatility.

Determining this value is one of the central functions of financial mathematics. The most common method used is the Black—Scholes formula. Importantly, the Black-Scholes formula provides an estimate of the price of European-style options. Adjustment to Call Option: When a call option is in-the-money i. Some of them are as follows:. Similarly if the buyer is making loss on his position i.

Trading options involves a constant monitoring of the option value, which is affected by the following factors:. Moreover, the dependence of the option value to price, volatility and time is not linear — which makes the analysis even more complex. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about financial options. For call options in general, see Option law. These factors affect the premium of the option with varying intensity. Some of these factors are listed here:.

Apart from above, other factors like bond yield or interest rate also affect the premium. This is because the money invested by the seller can earn this risk free income in any case and hence while selling option; he has to earn more than this because of higher risk he is taking. Because the values of option contracts depend on a number of different variables in addition to the value of the underlying asset, they are complex to value.

There are many pricing models in use, although all essentially incorporate the concepts of rational pricing , moneyness , option time value and put-call parity. Post the financial crisis of , the "fair-value" is computed as before, but using the Overnight Index Swap OIS curve for discounting. The OIS is chosen here as it reflects the rate for overnight unsecured lending between banks, and is thus considered a good indicator of the interbank credit markets.

Relatedly, this risk neutral value is then adjusted for the impact of counterparty credit risk via a credit valuation adjustment , or CVA, as well as various other X-Value Adjustments which may also be appended. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

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